Global shipping contributes to 3% of all Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. In 2018, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) presented its GHG strategy amid mounting pressures following the Paris agreement. The goal of the IMO is to see a 40% decrease in the carbon intensity of international shipping by the year 2030 and a 70% decline by 2050.
At the IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee in July 2021, it was declared that two new measures would come into force. For all existing and new ships over 400GT the Energy Efficiency Index (EEXI) would be introduced, and for all vessels over 5000GT the Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII). The EEXI is interested in the hardware, equipment and design of marine vessels and will be enforced from January 2023. The CII came into force on 1 November 2022 and is focused on how vessels are being operated. The thinking is that the most fuel-efficient engine on the market could be operated in an inefficient way.
The CII calculation is based on a ship’s Annual Efficiency Ratio (AER). This figure is indicative of a vessel’s carbon intensity in operation. Based on this measurement, a ship will be placed into five different categories (A-E), an A-rated ship being deemed ‘Major Superior’ and an E-rated vessel deemed ‘Inferior’. If a vessel receives a D rating for three years consecutively or an E rating for one year the ship owner must submit a corrective action plan that will be implemented in order to bring up the vessel's performance. This plan will be contained within the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP). As we approach 2030 and the IMO’s objective of a 40% decrease in carbon, the criteria for CII ratings will become increasingly more stringent.
The IMO hopes ships will pursue better marks, encouraged by stakeholders and third parties favouring those vessels with A&B ratings. With these incentives in mind, it makes sense for all ship owners to take action in any way they can to reduce carbon emissions or face prejudice from shipping customers and stakeholders.
The CII will take into consideration all a vessel’s emissions, including those from operations when the ship is at anchorage and in port. This means that all actions made onboard that could reduce emissions and improve a vessel's rating will be under the microscope.
The running of auxiliary engines and firing of auxiliary boilers, although much smaller GHG contributors when compared to that of main propulsion movements, will inevitably stack up. The utilisation of Signol onboard vessels has been shown to enhance the behaviour of crew members and ‘nudge’ them into making more fuel-efficient choices, therefore reducing the emissions being emitted into the environment. For example, the reduction of plant use where possible whilst maintaining system parameters will allow engineers to reduce auxiliary engine loads and eventually allow the number of generator sets on the board to be decreased. Signol interrogates similar behaviours and motivates users toward carbon saving choices. The optimisation of operations together with ensuring that vessels are kept in good condition will be paramount to shipowners in achieving a good rating and staying in favour with stakeholders.
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Signol is a software platform that draws on insights from behavioral economics to encourage employees to make more efficient decisions. Signol provides personalized feedback through multiple communication channels, as well as data analysis for managers. In aviation, Signol aims to use behavioral "nudges" and incentives to reduce pollution and fuel waste and cut operating costs.